DÜNYANIN EN SEÇKİN SANAT FAALİYETİ: VENEDİK BİENALİ


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Venedik Bienali (İtalyanca: La Bienale di Venezia),  yüz yılı aşkın bir süredir faaliyet gösteren dünyanın en seçkin ve en itibarlı kültürel etkinliği olarak kabul edilir. 1895 yılında yapılan ilk Bianel’e  dekoratif sanatlar önemli bir yer almıştır. Yirminci yüzyılın ilk on yılında etkinlik daha da uluslararası niteliğe erişmiş,  1907’den sonra birçok ülke kendi ulusal pavyonlarını kurmaya başlamıştır. I. Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Bienal’e modern sanattaki  yenilikçi akımlara ilgi göstermeye başlamıştır. II. Dünya Savaşı’na kadar birçok önemli modern sanatçı bu etkinlikte eserlerini sergilemişlerdir.

1

1930’lardan itibaren birçok yeni etkinlik bölümleri eklenmiştir: 1930’da Müzik Festivali, 1932’de Uluslararası Film Festivali, 1934’te Tiyatro Festivali. 1938’den itibaren de Sanat Sergisi bölümü,  ayrıca bu eserler için  “Büyük Ödül”lerde verilmeye başlanmıştır.

Dünya Savaşı sırasında altı yıl ara verildikten sonra, 1948’de yeniden yapılmaya başlanan Bienal’e, ilgisini önce Avrupa’daki avangard sanat, daha sonra tüm dünyadaki güncel akımlar üzerinde yoğunlaştırmış, Soyut Dışavurumculuk 1950’lerde, Pop Sanatı 1960’larda etkinlikte yer almıştır. İtalyan mimar Carlo Scarpa 1948’den 1972’ye kadar Bienal’in sergi mekânlarına önemli katkılarda bulunmuştur.no  2

1968 protestoları Bienal’de krize neden olmuş, büyük ödüller iptal edilmiş, monografik olanlar yerine daha çok tematik sergiler yeğlenmiştir. 1974’te yapılan etkinlik Agusto Pinochet’nin diktatörlüğünü kültür yoluyla protesto etmek amacıyla tümüyle Şili’ye adanmıştır. Yeni ödüller -Venedik Film Festivali’nin Altın Aslanları olarak verilmeye başlanmıştır. Postmodern sanat, gittikçe artan çeşitlilik ve popülerlikte sergiyle sahneye girmiştir.

no 3

Venedik Mimarlık Bienali,  1975-76-78 yılında Vittorio Gregotti’nün direktörlüğünde hayata geçirilen ilk sergiden bugüne kadar mimarlık gündemini belirlemekte önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir. İlk bağımsız Venedik Mimarlık Bienali uluslar arası kimliğini kazanarak etkinliğini 1980 yılında düzenlenmiştir.  İlk Bienal’in küratörü Paolo Portoghesi temayı “Presence of the past” (Geçmişin Varlığı) olarak belirlemiştir. Dönemin post modern tartışmalarına eğilmeyi amaçlayan ilk ana sergi Strada Novissima oldu. Birçok mimarın katılımıyla gerçekleşen sergide postmodern kavramını bir tiyatro sahnesi gibi sunmayı amaçlayan Portoghesi bu serginin “mimarlık hakkında değil, mimarlıkla birlikte” olduğunu söylemiştir.

4

Bienal postmodern hareketi sorgularken 2000 yılında Bienal direktörü Massimiliano Fuksas yeni yüzyılın mimarlığını estetikten ziyade etik üzerinden tartışmaya açmıştır. Tarihçesi büyük isimlerle ve ses getiren sergilerle yüklü olan Venedik Bienali, Venedik merkezli bir sanat organizasyonu ve aynı zamanda organize özgün ve temel bir güncel sanat sergisidir. Venedik Bienali’ne önceleri ‘‘Sanat Bienali’’ denir iken örgüt adını diğer sergi,  organizasyon ve organize sergilerden ayırt etmek için, yerine 2009 yılında ‘‘Bienali Vakfı’’ olarak değiştirdi.  İtalya’nın Venedik kentinde iki yılda bir gerçekleştirilen, Venedik Bienali , Venedik Film Festivali’ni ve Venedik Mimarlık Bienali’ni de bünyesinde barındırır. Sanat bienali iki yıl arayla tek sayıyla biten yıllarda yapılırken,  mimarlık bienali çift yıllarda yapılır. 1999’da bienalde  “Uluslararası Güncel Dans Festivali” de kurulmuştur.

2

Bienal Vakfı sürekliliğini sanatı destekleyen yanı sıra değişik etkinlikler düzenleyerek varlığını sürdürmektedir. Bugün, 370.000’den fazla uluslararası ziyaretçi kapasitesi olan Venedik Mimarlık Bienali, mimarlık mesleğinin dışında olup da mimarlık meraklısı olan tüm bireyler için de ev sahipliği yapmaktadır

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